The effect of Theranekron on femur fracture healing in an experimental rat model
1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of the Medicine, Van, Türkiye
2Mechanical Engineering, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Engineering, Van, Türkiye
3Department of Pathology, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Van, Türkiye
4Department of Surgery, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Van, Türkiye
Keywords: Femur, fracture healing, rat, Theranekron.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the radiological, biomechanical, histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of Theranekron on fracture healing in an experimental rat model.
Materials and methods: Forty-eight male albino Wistar rats were used. Four groups were formed, with 12 rats in each of Theranekron groups 1 and 2, and control groups 1 and 2. After a fracture was created in the right femur of the rats included in the study, fixation was performed with an intramedullary Kirschner wire. Theranekron was administered subcutaneously to Theranekron groups 1 and 2 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg on days 0, 5 and 10. After radiographic analysis of the femurs of Theranekron group 1 and control group 1 rats at four weeks of the study was performed, both groups were divided into two equal subgroups (six femurs in each group). Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed in one subgroup and biomechanical examination in the other subgroup. At the end of six weeks, the rats in Theranekron group 2 and control group 2 were evaluated after applying the same procedure as in the fourth week.
Results: When the mean radiological scores of the Theranekron and control groups were compared, a statistically significant difference was found in favor of the Theranekron group at four and six weeks (p=0.028 and p=0.006, respectively). At four weeks, statistically significant higher biomechanical forces were obtained in the Theranekron group compared to the control group (p=0.030). In the histopathological evaluation, the inflammation value of the control group at four weeks was statistically significantly higher than the Theranekron group (p=0.027). The angiogenesis, osteoblast proliferation, and bone formation values of the Theranekron group were significantly higher than the control group (p=0.014, p=0.014, and p=0.005, respectively). At six weeks, the bone formation values of the Theranekron group were statistically significantly higher than the control group (p=0.021). The difference between the Theranekron group and the control group scores of the immunohistochemical evaluation were statistically significantly different at four and six weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.011, respectively).
Conclusion: Theranekron may play a role in accelerating fracture healing by reducing acute inflammation process in the early period of fracture union, increasing fracture strength, angiogenesis, osteoblast proliferation, and bone formation.
Citation: Güven N, Özkan S, Türközü T, Koç S, Keleş ÖF, Yener Z, et al. The effect of Theranekron on femur fracture healing in an experimental rat model. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2022;33(2):374-384.
The study was carried out at Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Experimental Medicine Application and Research Center. Necessary permissions were obtained from Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Experimental Animals Ethics Committee before the study (No: 2021/01-09).
Data Sharing Statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Researched literature and conceived the study, performed data analysis, and wrote the paper: N.G.; Searched the literature and contributed to the writing of the article: S.Ö.; Was involved in animal experimental work and gaining ethical approval; T.T.; Performed the biomechanical analysis: S.K.; Were performed the histological investigation: Ö.F.K., Z.Y.; Was involved in experimental work and contributed to the design of the study: A.K., All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
This research was supported by grants from the Scientific Research Projects Unit of Van Yüzüncü Yıl University (TYD-2021-9561).
We acknowledge all the researchers who have determined the effect of fracture healing in this experimental model.