Comparison of the functional and radiological outcomes of vascularized and non-vascularized bone graft options in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Istanbul Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Scaphoid bone grafting, scaphoid nonunion, scaphoid non- vascularized bone graft, scaphoid pseudoarthrosis, scaphoid vascularized bone graft
Objectives: This study aims to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of the patients with scaphoid waist nonunion treated with non-vascularized bone graft and vascularized bone graft options.
Patients and methods: Between January 2016 and February 2020, a total of 24 patients (22 males, 2 females; mean age: 30.6±9.4 years; range, 18 to 66 years) with scaphoid waist nonunion who were treated with vascularized or non-vascularized bone graft were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients, eight were treated with iliac crest non-vascularized bone graft (IC-NBG), seven with vascularized free medial femoral condyle (MFC) graft, and nine with 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery pedicled vascularized bone graft (1,2-ICSRA-VBG). The grip strength, flexion, extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation angles were measured and compared to the contralateral hand for functional outcomes. Union rates, the scaphoid height-to-length ratio, the lateral intrascaphoid angle (LISA) were evaluated for radiological outcomes. The Mayo Wrist Score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, and Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Q-DASH) Questionnaire score were calculated.
Results: Union was observed in seven (87.5%) patients after IC-NBG, in six (85.7%) patients after MFC bone graft and nine (100%) patients in the treatment group with 1,2-ICSRA-VBG. There were no statistically significant differences among the IC-NBG, MFC and 1,2-ICSRA-VBG groups in terms of the union rates, the scaphoid height-to-length ratio, VAS score, Q-DASH score, grip strength and flexion, ulnar deviation, radial deviation angles after surgery (p>0.05). However, extension was statistically lower in the MFC group than IC-NBG and 1,2-ICSRA-VBG groups after surgery. The Mayo score was better in the IC-NBG group than MFC and 1,2-ICSRA-VBG, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Based on our study results, we suggest to use IC-NBG for scaphoid waist nonunion as the primary procedure, as the union rates are comparable with the MFC and 1,2-ICSRA-VBG techniques and it has advantages such as shorter operation time, easier technique, no special experience requirement, and better functional outcomes.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.