Bone mineral density of ancient Anatolian populations
Timur Gültekin1, İsmail Özer1, Mehmet Sağır1, İsmail Baykara1, Hakan Yılmaz1, Erksin Güleç1, Feza Korkusuz2
1University of Ankara, Department of Anthropology, Ankara, Türkiye
2Middle East Technical University, Department of Physical Education and Sports and Medical Center Ankara, Türkiye
Keywords: Bone mineral density, femur, Anatolia
Objective: Bone mineral density (BMD) is strongly related to sex, age and genetics. Ancient Anatolian populations 'BMD measurements may give insight into today’s Mediterranean and European populations' BMD profiles. Therefore, BMD of ancient Anatolian populations was measured and age- and sex-related differences were assessed. Materials and methods: Proximal femoral BMD of 149 males and 106 females of ages 15 to 65.5 years (mean age of 41±11 years) was measured using a dual energy X ray densitometer. The skeletons were excavated from six different regions of Anatolia (West, East, Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Central Anatolia) and dated to Chalcolithic, Bronze, Iron, Hellenistic, Roman, Medieval ages and the nineteenth century.
Results: Bones of individuals of 45 years and above had significantly lower BMD. Female bones BMD declined significantly with age, where males BMD remained relatively constant and slightly higher than that of the females. The BMD of the left femur was greater than the right in both sexes.
Discussion: This study presented variations in BMD between the two sexes and with age. Females had lower BMD levels than males in ancient Anatolian papulations. Differences were more obvivus as age increased.