Serkan Davut, Yunus Doğramacı

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Tayfur Ata Sokmen Faculty of Medicine, Hatay, Türkiye

Keywords: Articular, cartilage, patella, quadriceps muscle, vastus medialis obliquus.


Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) muscle distal insertion features and patellar chondral lesion presence.

Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 100 patients (18 males, 82 females, mean age 67.2±7.1 years; range, 50 to 86 years) who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Radiological assessments, including merchant view and standing orthoroentgenograms, were conducted. The current osteoarthritis stage, varus angle, quadriceps angle (Q angle), patella-patellar tendon angle (P-PT angle), congruence angle, and sulcus angle were calculated. The VMO tendon length, muscle fiber angle, tendon insertion width measurements, and patellar chondral lesion localization data were obtained intraoperatively. Grouping was done according to the distal insertion width of the VMO tendon to the medial edge of the patella. The medial rim of the patella was divided into three equal-sized sectors. The first group (Group 1, n=31) consisted of patients who had an insertion from the quadriceps tendon into the upper one-third of the patella. The second group (Group 1, n=48) consisted of patients with a distal insertion expanding into the middle one-third of the patella. The third group (Group 3, n=21) consisted of patients who had a distal insertion extending into the distal third region of the medial patella margin. The patella joint surface was divided into sectors, and the presence and location of cartilage lesions were noted in detail.

Results: The mean tendon insertion width rate was 45.99±16.886% (range, 16.7 to 83.3%). The mean muscle fiber insertion angle was 51.85±11.67º (range, 20º to 80º). The mean tendon length was 12.45±3.289 (range, 4 to 20) mm. There was no significant difference between the mean age, weight, height, body mass index, BMI, fiber angle, tendon length, varus angle, Q angle, sulcus angle, and congruence angle data among the groups. In terms of the P-PT angle, Groups 1 and 2 had a significant relationship (p=0.008). No relationship was found between the mean fiber insertion angle, mean tendon length, or the presence of chondral lesions. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups regarding the presence of chondral lesions. The highest percentage of chondral lesion frequency was observed in Group 3 (95.24%), followed by Group 1 (90.3%) and Group 2 (89.6%), respectively. Compared to the other two groups, Group 3 had a higher average ratio of lesion areas per patient.

Conclusion: Our study results demonstrate that the formation and localization of the patellar chondral lesions are affected by the insertion width type of the VMO muscle into the patella. Group 2-type insertion is associated with a lower lesion frequency rate than Groups 1 and 3.

Citation: Davut S, Doğramacı Y. Evaluation of the relationship between the anatomical characteristics of the vastus medialis obliquus muscle and the patella chondral lesion occurrence. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2024;35(2):330-339. doi: 10.52312/jdrs.2024.771.

Ethics Committee Approval

The study protocol was approved by the Hatay MKÜ Tayfur Ata Sökmen Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee (date: 03.05.2020, no: 2020/49). The study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Author Contributions

Idea/concept, control/supervision, writing the article, critical review: S.D., Y.D.; Design, literature review, references and fundings, materials: S.D.; Data collection and/or processing: S.D., Y.D., H.K.; Analysis and/or interpretation: C.Ö., S.D., Y.D.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.


All the authors would like to thank Harun Küçük for his support in collecting data, and Cahit Özer for his support in statistical analysis.

Data Sharing Statement

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.