Hyo-jin Lee, Yang-soo Kim, Bo-seoung Kim

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea

Keywords: Body mass index, frozen shoulder, triamcinolone acetonide.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of glenohumeral injection with triamcinolone acetonide for frozen shoulder and to identify the factors related to extent of range of motion (ROM) recovery.

Patients and methods: Between July 2015 and May 2020, a total of 305 patients with primary frozen shoulder (147 males, 158 females; mean age: 55.8±4.3 years; range, 52 to 73 years) who underwent intra-articular glenohumeral injection of triamcinolone acetonide were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome measure was the range of changes in each aspect of ROM at six weeks after injection. The relationship between improvement and unresponsiveness to intra-articular injection for the treatment of frozen shoulder with various factors were evaluated. The analyzed factors were as follows: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), initial ROM before injection, symptom duration, hand dominance, smoking history, and the existence of underlying disease including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary disease, thyroid disease, and hypercholesterolemia.

Results: There were significant improvements in all aspects of ROM at six weeks after injection. The forward flexion (r=-0.346, p<0.001) and external rotation (r=-0.204, p=0.040) showed a negative correlation with BMI. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI was the sole factor related to recovery of forward flexion (p=0.032) and external rotation (p=0.007) at six weeks post-injection.

Conclusion: Intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide is an effective method for improving ROM in patients with frozen shoulder. Increased BMI showed adverse effects on ROM recovery.

Citation: Lee HJ, Kim YS, Kim BS. Increase in range of motion after intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of frozen shoulder is related to body mass index. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2022;33(3):496-504.

Ethics Committee Approval

The study protocol was approved by the IRB of Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea Ethics Committee (KC17OESI0118). The study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Author Contributions

Analyzed and interpreted the data: H.J.L., Y.S.K.; Contributed to the acquisition of data: B.S.K.; Contributed to drafting the work and revising it critically for important intellectual content: Y.S.K., H.J.L.; Contributed to the final approval of the version to be published: H.J.L.; All authors agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.