Ahmet Payas1, Yakup Ekinci2, Kaan Gürbüz2, Sabri Batın2, Tolga Ertekin3, Kadirhan Doğan4, Hatice Güler5, Özge Al5, Halil Yılmaz6, Mehtap Nisari5

1Hitit University, Vocational College of Sungurlu, Çorum, Turkey
2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kayseri City Education and Training Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
3Department of Anatomy, Afyonkarahisar Health Science University, Faculty of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
4Kapadokya University, College of Health Sciences, Nevşehir, Turkey
5Department of Anatomy, Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
6Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Kozaklı Vocational School, Nevşehir, Turkey

Keywords: Bone length, embryonic development, nicotine, teratogenic, vitamin B12.


Objectives: The aim of this experimental rat study was to investigate the effectiveness of vitamin B12 (Vit-B12) against the teratogenic effects of nicotine use during pregnancy in the fetus.

Materials and methods: Eighteen Wistar-Albino pregnant rats were divided into six groups (n=3, each) as Group 1 (control), Group 2 (Vit-B12), Group 3 (nicotine 3 mg/kg/day), Group 4 (nicotine 3 mg/kg/day + Vit-B12), Group 5 (nicotine 6 mg/kg/day) and Group 6 (nicotine 6 mg/kg/day + Vit-B12). Nicotine was administered subcutaneously and Vit-B12 was administered intraperitoneally for 20 days. The skeletal systems of the embryos were stained using the double-staining method. The total bone length (TBL), the length of the ossified part, and the ossification rate were calculated using the ImageJ program. In addition, the weight and crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos were measured and recorded.

Results: Clinical shock effect was observed in all rats administered nicotine. A significant decrease in weight, CRL, and TBL was measured in Group 3 (p=0.0081) and, particularly in Group 5 (p=0.026), which were given only nicotine, compared to other groups. In the morphometric measurements of Group 4 and Group 6 to which Vit-B12 was added, values close to the control group were measured (p=0.173). The data of Group 6 were statistically significantly larger than Group 5 (p=0.007), while it was statistically smaller than Group 1 (p=0.0038).

Conclusion: Nicotine use negatively affects the morphological development of the embryo. On the other hand, Vit-B12 provides benefits in reducing these negative effects.

Citation: Payaş A, Ekinci Y, Gürbüz K, Batın S, Ertekin T, Doğan K, et al. Vitamin B12 reduces the negative effects of nicotine on fetal bone development in the rats. Jt Dis Relat Surg 2022;33(1):216-224.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.